Time to Stop Traveling by Air
Twenty-five years ago a young British man called Mark Ellingham decided that he wanted a change of scenery. So he went to Australia, stopping off in many countries between. He also decided to write about the experience and produced a guide for other travelers making similar journeys.
In 1970, British airports were used by 32million people. In 2004, the figure was 216 million. In 2030, according to government forecasts, it will be around 500 million. It's a growth driven by the emergence of low cost airlines, offering access to all parts of the world for less than ￡100.
This has made a huge contribution to global warming. One return flight from Britain to the US produces the same carbon dioxide(二氧化碳)as a year's motoring(驾车). A return flight to Australia equals the emissions(排放)of three average cars for a year. And the pollution is released at a height where its effect on climate change is more than double that on the ground.
Mark Ellingham built his business on helping people travel. Now he wants to help people stop – at least by air.
He is calling for a ￡100 green tax on all flights to Europe and Africa, and ￡250 on flights to the rest of the world. He also wants investment to create a low-carbon economy, as well as a halt to airport expansion.
Mark Ellingham's commitment is important because his readers aren't just the sort of young and adventurous people who would happily jump on a plane to spend a weekend exploring a foreign culture. They are also the sort of people who say they care about the environment. It's a debate that splits people down the middle.
The tourist industry has responded by offering offsetting(补偿)schemes. A small increase in the price of a ticket is used to plant trees.
But critics say that it is not enough to just be carbon neutral. We should be actively cutting back on putting green house gases into the atmosphere. And for the average person, making a plane journey will be his or her largest contribution to global warming. It maybe good to repair the damage we do. But surely it is better not to do the damage in the first place.
16.【题干】Mark Ellingham spent quite a few days in China on his way to Australia 25 years ago.
17.【题干】Traveling from Britain to any other part of the world may cost you less than ￡100.
18.【题干】A round trip flight from Britain to Australia produces the same amount of carbon dioxide as three average cars do in a year.
19.【题干】Mark Ellingham has never hesitated to encourage people to travel by air.
20.【题干】Mark Ellingham's readers are not interested in environmental protection.
21.【题干】Critics argue that the best way to protect our environment is not to do any damage to it.
22.【题干】Mark Ellingham will collaborate with the critics in his efforts to fight global warming.
Feed the World with Potatoes
1. As food prices continue to rise rapidly,there is growing concern about the effect it will have among the world’s poor.
2. Increasingly, experts are looking to thepotato as a possible low-cost solution to feeding the hungry. To emphasize the issue, the United Nations has called the potato “a hidden treasure” and named 2008 the International Year of the Potato. Here’s how potatoes could end the food crisis.
3. The potato matures more quickly, on less land and in harsher climate than most other major crops. Up to 85 percent of the plant is eatable, compared with around 50 percent of cereals. Its broad adaptability to a wide variety of farming systems is also note worthy.
4. Potatoes are an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, which is release their energy slowly, and have only 5 percent of wheat’ s fat content. They contain only a quarter of the calories of bread and,according to the Potato Center, when boiled, potatoes have more protein and nearly twice the calcium as corn. Additionally, they are good source of vitamin C, iron, potassium(钾)and zinc(锌).
5. The food and Agriculture Organization recently surveyed food price inflation in over 70 of the poor countries. Cereal price inflation was much higher and far more widespread than for potatoes. A significant factor behind the potato’ s affordability is the fact that unlike other agriculture products, the potato is not yet a global commodity, and has therefore not attracted speculative investors. Raw potatoes are heavy and carrot during transmit, so global trade has been show to take off. Also, potatoes are susceptible(易受影响的) to infection with disease, hindering(阻碍) export. According to analysts’ estimates, less than 5 percent of potatoes are traded internationally, with prices driven primarily by local tastes instead of international demand.
23. Paragraph 2_____
24. Paragraph 3_____
25. Paragraph 4_____
26. Paragraph 5_____
A. Potatoes’ Lower Inflation
B. Major Food Crops
C. Healthy Food
D. Higher Output
E. Growing Importance of Potatoes
F. High Price
27. The potato is cheap because
28. The whole world is concerned about food prices because
29. Many peopleeat potatoes because
30. The potato isnot yet a global commodity because
A. it has remained a controversial issue
B. they are rising rapidly
C. they are very nourishing
D. nobody eats it
E. its yield is high
F. raw potatoes can decay easily during transit
Electrick Backpack 【电子背包】
Backpacks are convenient. They can hold your books，your lunch，and a change of clothes，leaving your hands free to do other things.Someday，if you don't mind carrying a heavy load，your backpacks might also power your MP31player，keep your cell phone running，and maybe even light your way home.
Lawrence C. Rome and his colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia2 and the Marine Biological Laboratory in WoodsHole3，Mass.4，have invented a backpack that makes electricity from energy produced while its wearer walks. In military actions，search-and-rescue operations，and scientific field studies，people rely increasingly on cellphones，global positioning system (GPS) 5 receivers，night-vision goggles，and other battery powered devices to get around and do their work.
The backpack’s electricity- generating feature could dramatically reduce the amount of awearer’s load now devoted to spare batteries，report Rome and his colleagues in the Sept.9 Science6.The backpack’s electricity-creating powers depend on springs used to hang a cloth pack from its metal frame.The frame sits against the wearer’s back，and the whole pack moves up and down as the person walks.A gear mechanism converts vertical movements of the pack to rotary motions of an electrical generator，producing up to 7.4 watts.
Unexpectedly，tests showed that wearers of the new backpack alter their gaits in response to the pack’s oscillations，so that they carry loads more comfortably and with less effort than they do ordinary backpacks. Because of that surprising advantage，Rome plans to commercialize both electric and non-electric versions of the backpack.
The backpack could be especially useful for soldiers，scientists，mountaineers，and emergency workers who typically carry heavy backpacks.For the rest of us，power-generating backpacks could make it possible to walk，play video games，watch TV，and listen to music，all at the same time.Electricity-generating packs aren’t on the market yet，but if you do get one eventually，just make sure to look both ways before crossing the street!
1. Backpacks are convenient because
A they can be very large.
B they can hold as many things as you want to carry.
C your hand sare freed to do other things.
D you do not have to carry things with you.
2. What is the most important feature of the backpack invented by Lawrence C.Rome and his colleagues?
A It produces electricity for electronic devices while the wearer walks.
B It can be used as cellphones，GPS in the military actions or field studies.
C It is small and convenient.
D It is light and easy to carry.
3. The word "springs" in Paragraph 3 means
A a small stream of water flowing naturally from the earth.
B the season of the year，occurring between winter and summer.
C the act or an instance of jumping or leaping.
D a length of metal wound around，which returns to its original shape after being pushed.
4. According to Paragraph 4，what does Rome plan to do?
A To make the back pack more comfortable for the wearer.
B To put the backpack on the market.
C To test the advantage of the backpack.
D To promote the backpack in a newspaper or on television.
5. What is implied in “if you do get on eventually，just make sure to take both ways before crossing the street!”?
A You will be too excited to watch the traffic.
B Enjoying electronic devices while walking may invite traffic accidents.
C It is not possible for you to get such a backpack.
D It is wise of you to have such a backpack.
Ethnic Tensions in Belgium
Belgium has given the world Audrey Hepburn Rene Magritte (surrealist artist), the saxophone(萨克斯管)and deep-fried potato chips that are somehow called French.
But the story behind this flat, twice-Beijing-size country is of a bad marriage between two nationalities living together that cannot stand each other. With no new government, more than a hundred days after a general election, rumors run wild that the country is about to disappear.
"We are two different nations, an artificial state. With nothing in common except a king, chocolate and beer." Said Filp Dewinter, the leader of the Flemish Bloc, the extreme-right Flemish party.
Radical Flemish separatists like Mr Dewinter want to divide the country horizontally along ethnic and economic lines: to the north. Flanders—where Dutch (known locally as Flemish) is spoken and money is increasingly made; to the south. French-speaking Wallonla, where today old factories dominate the landscape.
The area of present-day Belgium passed to the French in the 18th century. Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. Belgium was given to the kingdom of the Netherlands, from which it gained independence as a separate kingdom of the Netherlands, from which it gained independence as a separate kingdom in 1830.
Since then, it has struggled for cohesion(结合).Anyone who has spoken French in a Flemish city quickly gets a sense of the mutual hostility that is part of daily life there.
But there are reasons Belgium is likely to stay together, at least in the short term.
The economies of the two regions are tightly linked, and separation would be a financial nightmare.
But there is also deep resentment in Flanders that its much healthier economy must subsidize(补贴)the south, where unemployment is double that of the north. French speakers in the south, meanwhile, favor the states quo(现状).
Belgium has made it through previous threats of division. Although some political analysts believe this one is different, there is no panic just now.
"We must not worry too much." said Baudouln Bruggeman, a 55-year-old school-teacher." Belgium has survived on compromise since 1930. You have to remember that this is Magritte's country, the country of surrealism. Anything can happen."
36Who was Magritte?
A.A French novelist
D.A surrealist artist
37. when did Belgium become an independent kingdom?
38Which statement about Belgium is NOT true?
A.it is twice as big as Beijing.
B.it has two major ethnic groups.
C.it has gone through quite a few threats of division.
D.it has no government.
39what does the passage main talk about?
C.Cultural clashes in Belgium.
D.Music in Belgium.
40The word "stand" in Paragraph 2 means_____.
Freezing to Death for Beauty
People in Beijing wear a lot of clothing during winter to fend off the cold. In the United States, however, people wear (51) ____ partly because the car is the primary mode of transportation. Cars take (52) _____ straight to their workplaces, which are heated well. The American diet is full of calories, so their (53) ____ can afford to burn heat more quickly.
Fewer layers of clothing give people the opportunity to stay (54) ______Lots of Yale girls wear skirts (55) ____ when it's 10 degrees Centigrade outside. Some of them at least wear boot, sights, and leg-warmers1.Some,however,really just go for the look (56) ____the risk of health2.These girls have nothing to prevent their legs (57) _____the wind, and no socks to protect their feet. A mini skirt and a pair of stilettos are all that they wear.
Typically, the ones pursuing fashion are (58) _____with little body fat. Just by the nature of their bodies, they are already at a disadvantage compared with normal people in (59) ____ weather. I have always (60) _____, whenever I pass these girls, how they manage to refrain from shivering and just smile like spring had arrived3.
And then there are the guys. The girls can be said to (61) _____health for beauty. But why do guys (62) _____ so little? It is not like, once they shed some layers, they suddenly become better-looking. They are not exactly being fashionable when they (63) _____wear sporty shorts and shower slippers in the midst of winter. It's not cute.
Of course, people have the freedom to look whatever (64) ____they want. I am just surprised that, given the vast difference between winter and summer temperatures in Connecticut, they can still (65) _____like they are partying on the beach in the middle of February.
51. A. scarce B. less C. little D. least
52. A. people B. students C. shoppers D. them
53. A. arms B. heads C. legs D. bodies
54. A. bony B. thin C. fashionable D. hungry
55. A. even B. sometimes C. frequently D. occasionally
56. A.in B. for C.at D. on
57. A. with B. against C. above D. under
58. A. fat B. ugly C. short D. skinny
59. A. warm B. cold C. cool D. hot
60. A. dreamed B. stated C. claimed D. wondered
61. A. sacrifice B. devote C. suffer D. endure
62. A. bear B. carry C. wear D. put on
63. A. only B. seldom C. rarely D. hardly
64. A. method B. road C. way D. avenue
65. A. see B. resemble C. show D. look
US Signs Global Tobacco Treaty【美国签订了全球烟草协议】
The United States has taken the first step toward approving a global tobacco treaty that promises to help control the deadly effects of tobacco use throughout the world. Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) this week at the United Nations. ____(46)
The FCTC was developed by the World Health Organization and approved by members of the World Health Assembly，including the United States，last year. ______(47)
For instance, cigarettes sold in those countries would have to have health warnings on at least 30% of the front and back of every pack. _____(48) It also requires bans on tobacco advertising, though there are some exceptions for countries like the United States, where the Constitution prohibits such an outright ban.
______(49)The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco use kills nearly 5 million people worldwide every year. In the US alone, about 440,000 people die each year from tobacco-related illnesses; about one-third of all cancers in the US are caused by tobacco use. If current trends continue, WHO estimates, by 2025 tobacco will kill 10 million people each year.
The treaty must be ratified by at least 40 countries before it can take effect. ______(50)
A.Tobacco stocks also perked up as investors discounted fears of litigation(诉讼) from the US
B. So far，109 countries have signed it, and 12 have ratified it.
C. The impact of the treaty could be huge.
D. Countries that ratify(批准) it would be required to enact strict tobacco control policies.
E.The treaty calls for higher tobacco taxes, restrictions on smoking in public places, and more promotion of tobacco prevention and cessation programs.
F. The Senate must still approve the treaty before the US can implement its provisions.
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