2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(理工类B级)_托福机经_雅思机经_机经_真题-取经课

2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(理工类B级)

作者:网络 来源:网络 时间:2016-07-22 11:54

  词汇选项

  1.【题干】The revelation of his past led to his resignation.

  A.imagination

  B.disclosure

  C.confirmation

  D.recall

  2. 【题干】You'll have to sprint if you want to catch the train.

  A.jump

  B.escape

  C.run

  D.prepare

  3. 【题干】Jensen is dangerous man, and can be very brutal.

  A.careless

  B.cruel

  C.strong

  D.hard

  4.【题干】We are worried about this fluid situation full with uncertainty.

  A.changeble

  B.stable

  C.suitable

  D.adaptable

  5.【题干】The new garment fits her perfectly.

  A.haircut

  B.purse

  C.clothes

  D.necklace

  6.【题干】The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma.

  A.fear

  B.joy

  C.hurt

  D.memory

  7.【题干】They have built canals to irrigate the desert.

  A.decorate

  B.water

  C.change

  D.visit

  8. 【题干】The coastal area has very mild winter, but the central plains remain extremely cold.

  A.warm

  B.severe

  C.hard

  D.dry

  9. 【题干】Her overall language proficiency remains that of a toddler.

  A.disabled

  B.pupil

  C.teenager

  D.baby

  10.【题干】The details of the costume were totally authentic.

  A.real

  B.outstanding

  C.creative

  D.false

  11. 【题干】The idea was quite brilliant.

  A.positive

  B.clever

  C.key

  D.original

  12. 【题干】We are aware of the potential problems.

  A.global

  B.possible

  C.ongoing

  D.central

  13.【题干】Stock market price tumbled after rumor of a rise in interest rate.

  A.regulated

  B.increased

  C.maintained

  D.fell

  14.【题干】The course gives you basic instruction in car maintenance.

  A.coaching

  B.idea

  C.term

  D.aspect

  15.【题干】All houses within 100 meters of the seas are at risk of flooding.

  A.in danger

  B.out of control

  C.between equals

  D.in particular

  阅读判断

  The Theory of Everyone

  If Stephen Hawking lives until the year 2017, he will have lived more than 50 years longer than his doctors expected. When he was a college student, doctors discovered that he had a rare disease. This disease causes a gradual disintegration(分解)of the nerve cells in the brain cells that regulate voluntary muscle activity. Death almost always occurs within two or three years.

  Today Stephen Hawking cannot walk or speak. He cannot move his arms or his head. He cannot taste or smell anything. And yet this man is Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, a position held by the famous scientist Isaac Newton in 1669.

  Hawking is often described as the greatest scientist since Albert Einstein, but to the world outside science, he is also known as the man who made scientific theory understandable. His book, A Brief History of Time, has sold over eight million copies.

  He says that since he does not have to think about his body or do any of the things other men have to worry about, such as washing the car or working in the yard, he can dedicate all of his time to thinking. This puts him in the perfect position to find the answer to the question that he has dedicated his life to. His question is: Is there a complete theory of the universe and everything in it?

  Despite his tremendous physical disabilities, he has already made some very important discoveries about the origin of the universe, how the universe holds together, and how it will probably end. He has also been able to explain the secrets of “black holes” in space. Now he is looking for a set of rules that everything in our universe must obey. He calls it the Theory of Everything. He thinks that someone will have found the answer within the next 20 years.

  If Stephen Hawking is able to find his Theory of Everything, he will have given the world the opportunity to understand things that will change the whole nature of science and probably also the way we live.

  16.【题干】Stephen Hawking will be 50 years old by 2017.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  17.【题干】Stephen Hawking suffers from a rare brain disease.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  18.【题干】Stephen Hawking is Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  19.【题干】A Brief History of Time is very difficult for students to understand.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  20.【题干】Stephen Hawking has much time to think because he doesn't have to work.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  21.【题干】Stephen Hawking has spent around ten years explaining the secrets of

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  22.【题干】The Theory of Everything is about the rules that everything in the universe follows.

  A.Right

  B.Wrong

  C.Not mentioned

  概括大意

  Geothermal(地热)Energy

  1 Since heat naturally moves from hotter regions to cooler ones, the heat from the earth's center flows outwards towards the surface. In this way, it transfers to the next layer of rock. If the temperature is high enough, some of this rock melts and forms magma(岩浆). The magma ascends in its turn towards the earth's surface. It often remains well below the earth's surface, creating vast areas of hot rock. In such regions, there are deep cracks, which allow rainwater to descend underground. Some of the heated rainwater travels back up to the earth's surface where it will appear as a hot spring. However, if this ascending hot water reaches a layer of impermeable(不可渗透的)rock, it remains trapped, forming a geothermal reservoir. If geothermal reservoirs are close enough to the surface, they can be reached by drilling wells. Hot water and steam shoot up the wells naturally, and can be used to produce electricity in geothermal power plants.

  2.A few geothermal power plants depend on dry-stem reservoirs which produce steam but little or no water. In these cases, the steam is piped up directly to provide the power to spin a turbine generator. The first geothermal power plant, constructed at Lardarello in Italy, was of this type, and is still producing electricity today.

  3.Most currently operating geothermal power plants are either "flash" steam plants or binary(双重的)plants. Flash plants produce mainly hot water ranging in temperature from 300° to 700°Fahrenheit. This water is passed through one or two separators where released from the pressure of the underground reservoir, it "flashes" or boils into steam Again, the force of this steam provides the energy to spin the turbine and produce electricity. The geothermal water and steam are then reinjected directly back down into the earth to maintain the volume and pressure of the reservoir. Gradually they will be reheated and can then be used again.

  4.A reservoir with temperatures below 300° Fahrenheit is not hot enough to flash steam but it can still be used to generate electricity in binary fluid. The steam from this is used to power the turbines. As in the flash steam plant, the geothermal water is recycled back into the reservoir.

  23.【题干】Paragraph1_____

  A.Dry steam plants

  B.Binary plants

  C.Origin of geothermal energy

  D.Generation of electricity

  E.Flash steam plants

  F.Recyclable water and steam

  24【题干】Paragraph2_____

  A.Dry steam plants

  B.Binary plants

  C.Origin of geothermal energy

  D.Generation of electricity

  E.Flash steam plants

  F.Recyclable water and steam

  25【题干】Paragraph3_____

  A.Dry steam plants

  B.Binary plants

  C.Origin of geothermal energy

  D.Generation of electricity

  E.Flash steam plants

  F.Recyclable water and steam

  26【题干】Paragraph4_____

  A.Dry steam plants

  B.Binary plants

  C.Origin of geothermal energy

  D.Generation of electricity

  E.Flash steam plants

  F.Recyclable water and steam

  27.【题干】A geothermal reservoir is formed when hot water is trapped under _____.

  A.the energy to turn a turbine

  B.impermeable rock

  C.one or two separators

  D.turbine operator

  E.little or no water

  F.hot springs

  28.【题干】A dry-steam reservoir produces steam with _____.

  A.the energy to turn a turbine

  B.impermeable rock

  C.one or two separators

  D.turbine operator

  E.little or no water

  F.hot springs

  29.【题干】Flash plants produce hot water through _____.

  A.the energy to turn a turbine

  B.impermeable rock

  C.one or two separators

  D.turbine operator

  E.little or no water

  F.hot springs

  30.【题干】In a binary plant, the heat of the geothermal water can be converted into _____.

  A.the energy to turn a turbine

  B.impermeable rock

  C.one or two separators

  D.turbine operator

  E.little or no water

  F.hot springs

  阅读理解

  Smart Windows

  1.Windows not only let light in to cut down an electricity use for lighting, but the light coming through the window also provides heat. However, windows are not something people typically associate with being a cutting edge technology. Researchers are now working on new technologies that enable a window to quickly change from clear to dark and anywhere in between easily.

  2."It took us a long time to figure out what a window really is," says Claes Granqvist. He's a professor of solid-state physics at Uppsala University in Sweden. "It's contact with the outside world. You have to have visual contact with the surrounding world to feel well." So, windows and natural light are important for improving the way people feel when they're stuck indoors.

  3.Yet, windows are the weak link in a building when it comes to energy and temperature control. In the winter, cold air leaks in. When it's hot and sunny, sunlight streams in. All of this sunlight carries lots of heat and energy. And all of this extra heat forces people to turn on their air conditioners. Producing cold air, which can feel so refreshing(使人清新的), actually suck up enormous amounts of electricity in buildings around the world.

  4.Windows have been a major focus of energy research for a long time. Over the years, scientists have come up with a variety of strategies for coating, glazing(用玻璃覆盖), and layering windows to make them more energy efficient. Smart windows go a step further. They use some chromogenic(发色的)technologies involving changes of color.

  5.Electrochromic(电致色的) windows use electricity to change color. For example, a sheet of glass coated with thin layers of tungsten oxide(氧化钨)works a bit like a battery. Tungsten oxide is clear when an electric charge is applied and dark when the charge is removed, that is, when the amount of voltage(电压)is decreased, the window darkens until it's completely dark after all electricity is taken away. So applying a voltage determines whether the window looks clear or dark.

  6.One important feature that makes a smart window so smart is that it has a sort of "memory". All it takes is a small shock of voltage to turn the window from one state to the other. Then, it stays that way. Transitions take from 10 seconds to a few minutes, depending on the size of the window. The development of smart windows could mean that massive air conditioning systems may no longer need. "In the future," Granqvist says, "our buildings may look different."

  31.【题干】Which of the following values of windows is NOT mentioned?

  A.They let light in to brighten the house.

  B.They let light in to heat the house.

  C.They let us have visual contact with the surrounding world.

  D.They let us think about the outside world.

  32.【题干】The expression "when it comes to" in Paragraph 3 is used to_____.

  A.signal the arrival of a guest.

  B.indicate the recovery of consciousness.

  C.show our understanding of something.

  D.introduce a new aspect of a topic.

  33.【题干】According to Paragraph 4, smart windows are the windows that_____.

  A.are costed.

  B.are glazed.

  C.have several layers.

  D.can change color.

  34.【题干】Which paragraph gives an account of the way electrochromic windows changing?

  A.Paragraph 5.

  B.Paragraph 3.

  C.Paragraph 4.

  D.Paragraph 6.

  35.【题干】A smart windows is smart mainly because_____.

  A.it can change its size.

  B.it can change its structure.

  C.it can change the voltage of electricity.

  D.it has a sort of memory.

  Sports Star Yao Ming

  If Yao Ming is not the biggest sports star in the world, he is almost certainly the tallest. At 2.26m, he is the tallest player in the National Basketball Association (NBA) and holds the record as the most towering Olympian ever to compete in the Games.

  But what really stands out about the giant center is his celebrity(名气). Few, if any, Chinese athletes are as well-known as Yao around the world. People across the globe are fascinated with Yao, not only for his basketball prowess(杰出的才能)also for being a symbol of international commerce.

  When Yao joined the Houston Rockets as the No.1 pick in the 2002 NBA draft(选抜), he was the first international player ever to be selected first. His assets on the court are clear enough—no NBA player of his size has ever possessed his mobility, so he is a handful(难对付的人)for opponents on either end of the court. But what makes Yao invaluable to the Rockets organization is his role as a global citizen and as a bridge to millions of potential basketball fans in China.

  When it was announced in February that Yao would miss the rest of the NBA season and possibly the Olympics with a stress fracture(骨折)in his left foot, a collective shudder(震动)spread across China. After considerable debate and discussion, Yao opted to get his foot surgically treated in an operation that placed several tiny screws across the bone, to offer his overburdened foot more support. The surgery was a success, and though the estimated four-month recovery period will leave him little time to prepare with Team China, Yao has vowed to be ready for the Beijing Olympics.

  Yao wrapped up a 10-day trip to China, where he underwent a series of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments, hoping to accelerate his recovery process Western experts are generally skeptical of TCM's benefits although new research from the University of Rochester suggests that a certain compound derived from shellfish may indeed stimulate bone repair.

  "There is no reason to dismiss TCM," Yao told a press conference in Beijing." It's been used in our country for thousands of years. I don't think that it's short on science."

  36.【题干】The word "towering" in Paragraph 1 means_____

  A.large.

  B.fat.

  C.tall.

  D.great.

  37.【题干】Opponents find it very difficult to control Yao Ming because of his_____

  A.mobility.

  B.assault.

  C.defense.

  D.celebrity.

  38.【题干】Yao Ming had to undergo a series of TCM treatments because_____

  A.his right foot had been hurting.

  B.he wanted to make a more rapid recovery.

  C.the surgical operation had been a failure.

  D.he couldn't afford all the medical expenses.

  39.【题干】Which statement about Yao Ming is NOT true?

  A.He missed the Athens Olympics.

  B.He is an NBA player.

  C.He fractured his left foot.

  D.He is an international figure.

  40.【题干】In general, the Western experts' attitude towards TCM is_____.

  A.indifferent.

  B.positive.

  C.negative.

  D.doubtful.

  Can you hear This?

  When something creates a sound wave in a room or an auditorium, listeners hear the sound wave directly from the source. They also hear the reflections as the sound bounces off the walls, floor, and ceiling. These are called the reflected wave or reverberant(反射的)sound, which can be heard even after the sound is no longer coming from the source.

  The reverberation time of an auditorium is determined by the volume or interior size of the auditorium. It is also determined by how well or how poorly the walls, ceiling, floor, and contents of the room (including the people) absorb sound. There is no ideal reverberation time. Because each use of an auditorium calls for different reverberation. Speech needs to be understood clearly: therefore rooms used for talking must have a short reverberation time. The full-sound performance of music such as Wagner operas or Mahler symphonies should have a long reverberation time. The light, rapid musical passages of Bach or Mozart need a reverberation time somewhere between.

  Acoustic problems often are caused by poor auditorium design. Smooth, curved reflecting surfaces create large reflections. Parallel(平行的)walls reflect sound back and forth, creating a rapid, repetitive pulsing effect. Large pillars(柱)and corners can cause acoustic shadows as the sound waves try to pass around the object. Some of these problems can be solved by using absorbers and reflectors to change the reverberation time of a room. For example, hanging large reflectors, called clouds, over the performers will allow some sound frequencies to reflect and others to pass to achieve a pleasing mixture of sound.

  41.【题干】This passage is mainly about_____

  A.sound waves and their effects.

  B.the types of music orchestras play.

  C.walls of an auditorium.

  D.the design of an auditorium.

  42.【题干】Wagner operas and Mahler symphonies with full-sound effect have_____

  A.a short reverberation time.

  B.an intermediate reverberation time.

  C.no reverberation time.

  D.a long reverberation time.

  43.【题干】This passage suggests that a good auditorium should_____

  A.get rid of all reflections.

  B.not have absorbers.

  C.achieve a pleasing mixture of sound.

  D.have smooth surfaces.

  44.【题干】Large pillars and corners may_____

  A.make sound rich and full.

  B.be cures for sound problems.

  C.be sources of sound problems.

  D.function as effectively as clouds.

  45.【题干】The word "acoustic" in the last paragraph has something to do with_____

  A.performance.

  B.sound.

  C.audience.

  D.weather.

  补全短文

  What Is a Dream?

  For centuries, people have wondered about the strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that this nighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others, however, think that dreams are an important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believe that dreams can tell us about a person's mind and emotions.

  Before modern times, many people thought that dreams contained messages from God. _____(46)

  The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud, was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famous book, The interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud wrote that dreams are an expression of a person's wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to express the feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.

  The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung was once a student of Freud's. Jung, however, had a different idea about dreams. Jung believed that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to the dreamer._____(47)For example, people who dream about falling may learn that they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people who dream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.

  Modern-day psychologists continue to develop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff from the University of California, Santa Cruz, believes that dreams are tightly linked to a person's daily life, thoughts, and behavior. _____(48)

  Domhoff believes that there is a connection between dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as much as adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time to develop.

  He has also found a link between dreams and gender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. _____(49)This is not true of women's dreams. Domhoff found this gender difference in the dreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditional ones.

  Can dreams help us understand ourselves? Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways._____(50)The dream may have meaning, but it does not mean that some terrible event will actually take place. It's important to remember that the world of dreams is not the real world.

  46.【题干】_____

  A.For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  B.Men and women dream about different things.

  C.A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D.However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  E.It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  F.He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  47.【题干】_____

  A.For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  B.Men and women dream about different things.

  C.A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D.However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  E.It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  F.He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  48.【题干】_____

  A.For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  B.Men and women dream about different things.

  C.A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D.However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  E.It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  F.He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  49.【题干】_____

  A.For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  B.Men and women dream about different things.

  C.A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D.However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  E.It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  F.He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  50.【题干】_____

  A.For example, the people in men's dreams are often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.

  B.Men and women dream about different things.

  C.A criminal, for example, might dream about crime.

  D.However, one thing they agree on this: If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.

  E.It was only in the twentieth century that people started to study dreams in a scientific way.

  F.He thought people could learn more about themselves by thinking about their dreams.

  完形填空

  Warmer climate will bake tropical bugs

  Global warming could cook tropical insects, with unpredictable knock-on effects, say researchers who warn that rising temperatures also_____(51)tropical frogs and lizards(蜥蜴).

  Temperatures are_____(52)to increase much faster in temperate(温和的)and polar(极地的)regions than in the tropics. But no-one had looked at how warming would affect insects and other cold-blooded animals_____(53)had evolved in tropical regions with little temperature variation.

  Curtis Deutsch at the University of California at Los Angeles and colleagues analysed data_____(54)insect survival and reproduction for 38 species in different ecosystems(生态系统), and then estimated how these values would_____(55)with predictions of climate change for the 21st century.

  The team found that the reproductive_____(56)of tropical insects tends to peak very close to the temperatures where they normally live, but_____(57)sharply at higher temperatures. This means that cranking up(提高)the heat only a small amount can exert a heavy toll, leaving insects unable to reproduce_____(58)enough to keep up their numbers.

  Temperate insects reproduce well over a broader range, and do not live as_____(59)to their thermal(热的)limit, so they can reproduce successfully when their climate warms more than in the tropics.

  "Tropical insects do very well in a narrow band of temperatures, but move them above that_____(60)and they die," says team member Josh Tewksbury of the University of Washington in Seattle.

  The heart of the_____(61)is temperature tolerance. Temperate-zone insects have evolved to survive the much broader temperature swings of seasonal climates, than have their tropical relatives.

  The_____(62)appears worse for animals that live in hot stable climate of the lower levels of tropical forests. Lizards in clear areas can find shade to cool down, but those living in the forest are already in the_____(63), and there's not much they can do to get cooler, Deutsch says.

  Too few tropical insects have been studied so far to_____(64)if any particular group will be particularly hard-hit, says Tewksbury. Insects play important_____(65)in forest ecology(生态学).

  The team are now starting to evaluate how temperature affects ecological interactions of insects with other species, including crops such as African corn.

  51.【题干】_____

  A.treat

  B.threaten

  C.help

  D.protect

  52.【题干】_____

  A.demanded

  B.needed

  C.promised

  D.expected

  53.【题干】_____

  A.while

  B.where

  C.that

  D.what

  54.【题干】_____

  A.on

  B.in

  C.at

  D.with

  55.【题干】_____

  A.meet

  B.spread

  C.decrease

  D.change

  56.【题干】_____

  A.rate

  B.value

  C.system

  D.type

  57.【题干】_____

  A.develops

  B.stops

  C.rises

  D.drops

  58.【题干】_____

  A.fast

  B.typically

  C.firmly

  D.jointly

  59.【题干】_____

  A.important

  B.possible

  C.close

  D.necessary

  60.【题干】_____

  A.range

  B.order

  C.rank

  D.XX

  61.【题干】_____

  A.proposal

  B.project

  C.thesis

  D.problem

  62.【题干】_____

  A.reason

  B.cause

  C.level

  D.effect

  63.【题干】_____

  A.cave

  B.shade

  C.sunshine

  D.open

  64.【题干】_____

  A.tell

  B.speak

  C.wonder

  D.doubt

  65.【题干】_____

  A.tricks

  B.roles

  C.games

  D.rules

  参考答案

  词汇选项

  BCBAC CBADA BBDAA

  阅读判断

  BAABACA

  概括大意

  CAEFBECA

  阅读理解

  DDDAD CABAD DDDCB

  补全短文

  EFCAD

  完形填空

  BDCAD ADACC DDBAB