2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(卫生类A级)_托福机经_雅思机经_机经_真题-取经课

2016年职称英语考试真题及答案(卫生类A级)

作者:网络 来源:网络 时间:2016-07-22 13:24

  阅读判断

  Deforestation and Desertification(沙漠化)

  The Sahel zone lies between the Sahara desert and the fertile savannahs(热带大草原)of northern Nigeria and South Sudan. The word sahel comes from Arabic and means marginal or transitional ,and this is a good description of the semi-arid(半干旱) lands, which occupy much of the Western African countries of Mail, Mauritania, Niger ,and Chad.

  Unfortunately, over the last century the Sahara desert has steadily crept southwards eating into once productive Sahel lands. United Nations surveys show that over 70 percent of the dry land in agriculture use in Africa has deteriorate dover the last 30 years. Droughts have become more severe, the most recent lasting over twenty years in parts of the Sahel region. The same process of desertification is taking place across southern Africa as the Kalahari desert advances into Botswana and parts of South Africa.

  One of the major causes of this desert advance is poor agricultural land use, driven by the pressures of increasing population. Overgrazing一 keeping too many farm animals on the land一means that grasses and other plants cannot recover, and scarce water supplies are exhausted. Over cultivation一 trying to grow too many crops on poor land一 results in the soil becoming even less fertile and drier, and beginning to break up. Soil erosion (侵蚀) follows, and the land turns into desert.

  Another cause of desertification is loss of tree cover. Trees are cut down for use as fuel and to clear land for agricultural use. Tree roots help to bind the soil together, to conserve moisture, and to provide a habitat for her plants and animals. When trees are cut down, the soil begins to dry and loosen, wind and rain erosion increase, other plant species die, and eventually the fertile top soil may be almost entirely lost, leaving only bare rock and dust.

  The effects of loss of topsoil and increased drought are irreversible. They are, however, preventable. Careful conservation of tree cover and sustainable agricultural land use have been shown to halt deterioration of soils and lessen the effects of shortage of rainfall. One project in Kita in south-west Malifunded by UNDP has involved local communities in sustainable management offorest, while at the same time providing a viable(有活力的)agricultural economy. This may be a model for similar projects in other West African countries.

  36.【题干】The Sahel zone is an area which _____.

  A.is covered with sad and grass

  B.has a long history

  C.occupies much of South Nigeria

  D.belongs to Sudan

  37. 【题干】What is the situation about the desertification in Africa?

  A.The deserts are replaced with grasslands

  B.The deserts are expanding

  C.the deserts are moving northwards

  D.the deserts are being deserted

  38. 【题干】The word "deteriorated" in paragraph2 means _____.

  【选项】

  A.deepened

  B.suffered

  C.slipped

  D.worsened

  39. 【题干】What is the root cause of desertification?

  A.poor farming

  B.overpopulation

  C.radical climate change

  D.disappearance of rare plant species

  40. 【题干】In order to prevent desertification, the author proposes _____.

  A.making good use of international aids

  B.developing a sustainable agricultural economy

  C.gaining international support

  D.converting agricultural land into forest

  阅读理解

  Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart Attack【科学家探索发现心脏病的方法】

  German researchers have __ 1 __ a new generation of defibrillators and early-warning software aimed at offering heart patients greater protection __ 2 __ sudden death from cardiac arrest.

  In Germany alone around 100,000 people die annually as a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases __ 3 __ by disruption to the heart’s rhythm. Those most at risk are patients who have __ 4 __ suffered a heart attack, and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in diagnosing __ 5 __ disruption to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds. These devices __ 6__ a range of functions, such as that of pacemaker.

  Heart specialists at Freiburg’s University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator __ 7 __ of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG. within the body. This integrated system allows early diagnosis of __ 8__ blood-flow problems and a pending heart attack. It will be implanted in patients for the first time this year. Meanwhile, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautern have developed new computer software that renders of ECG data __ 9 __ .

  The overwhelming __ 10 __ of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this reason undergo regular ECGs. “Many of the current programs only __ 11__ into account a linear correlation of the data. We are, however, making use __ 12__ a non-linear process that reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system,” Hagen Knaf says, “__ 13 __ changes in the heart beats over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into account.” An old study of ECG data, based __ 14__ 600 patients who had suffered a subsequent heart attack, enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show __ 15 __ the new software evaluates the data considerably better.

  1.A come up B come up with C come up to D come up against

  2.A to B for C with D from

  3.A are caused B caused C are to cause D have been causing

  4.A easily B readily C frequently D already

  5.A disease-producing B health-improving C life-threatening D error-correcting

  6.A take in B take after C take on D take from

  7.A capable B able C skillful D skilled

  8.A chronic B acute C recurrent D persistent

  9.A precisely B more precisely C precision D more precise

  10.A maximum B minimum C majority D minority

  11.A get B take C bring D fetch

  12.A of B with C for D in

  13.A Similarly B In this manner C Otherwise D In this way

  14.A in B for C upon D with

  15.A what B where C that D when

  补全短文

  Sauna【桑拿浴】

  Ceremonial(仪式性的)bathing has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath._____(46)Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.

  The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours._____(47)Today most saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.

  Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis(关节炎)may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation(炎症). Asthma(气喘)patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion(阻塞)arid speed recovery time._____(48)The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying "feed a cold, starve a fever". The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.

  Sauna is good for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body's physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes._____(49)Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.

  A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor's advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas._____(50)Indeed, everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to become accustomed to this type of bath.

  46.【题干】_____

  A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

  B.The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

  C.The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

  D.The body's core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

  E.Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

  F.A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

  47.【题干】_____

  A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

  B.The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

  C.The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

  D.The body's core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

  E.Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

  F.A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

  48.【题干】_____

  A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

  B.The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

  C.The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

  D.The body's core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

  E.Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

  F.A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

  49.【题干】_____

  A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

  B.The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

  C.The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

  D.The body's core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

  E.Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

  F.A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

  50.【题干】_____

  A.an extra large sauna and steam room can be used for players to relax in.

  B.The cardiovascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange.

  C.The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals.

  D.The body's core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.

  E.Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months.

  F.A few people today say that the smoke sauna, "savusauna", is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke.

  参考答案

  阅读判断

  ABDAB

  阅读理解

  BDADC CABDC BADCC

  补全短文

  CFDBE